Оценивание посетителями Московского зоопарка ягуара (Panthera onca) и условий его содержания в зависимости от типа обогащения среды и активности животногостатья

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1. Fedorovich_yaguar_antropomorfnoe_obogaschenie.pdf Fedorovich_yaguar_antropomorfnoe_obogaschenie.pdf 8,8 МБ 31 декабря 2015 [FedorovichEYu]

[1] Оценивание посетителями Московского зоопарка ягуара (panthera onca) и условий его содержания в зависимости от типа обогащения среды и активности животного / И. П. Семёнова, П. Е. Кондрашкина, В. А. Жучкова и др. // Научные исследования в зоологических парках. Межведомственый сборник научных и научно-методических трудов. — Т. 31. — Московский зоопарк Москва, 2015. — С. 113–128. SUMMARY I.P. Semenova, P.E. Kondrashkina, V.A. Guskova, A.A. Podturkin, E.Yu. Fedorovich. The perception and subsequent evaluation by the Moscow zoo visitors the Jaguar (Panthera onca) and conditions of its life depending on the type of environmental enrichment and activity of the animal. Our study was aimed to find out how different types of enrichment (which may specify different attitudes of animals watching), as well as the activity of the animal, directed to the items of enrichment, affect the perception and subsequent evaluation both the animal and keeping conditions by the zoo visitors. The study was conducted in the Moscow zoo (3-10 March, 2014 and 12 February -12 March, 2015). We interviewed focal visitors, selected from the group of people (age 25-45 years), watching the adult female jaguar (Panthera onca). After the visitors moved away from the cage, they were asked to estimate the 15 characteristics of the animal and the conditions of its life (e.g. Evil–Kind, Unhappy–Happy, Ugly–Beautiful, Lazy–Active, Sick–Healthy, Аnimal is not well maintained - Аnimal is well maintained). To do this they had to make pencil marks on a visual bipolar analogue scale (length of 160 mm, with a zero mark in the middle, meet 80 mm). We have identified 5 conditions: 1. Control (n=25): there were no obvious enrichment items in the jaguar's enclosure. Under experimental conditions 2 and 3 there were items used for enrichment in the enclosure, but Jaguar did not interact with them: 2. Routine enrichment (plastic drums of different shapes and sizes, road cones, cardboard boxes, hanging on a rope plastic stand for umbrellas, trees and live fish; n = 45). 3. Anthropomorphic enrichment (various objects with anthropomorphic features: a snowman, a bag of sawdust or box with a painted smiley on them, a scarecrow from the plastic barrels and cardboard boxes, having a head with a painted face; n = 18). Under experimental conditions 4 and 5 the animal approached enrichment items (the same as in conditions 2 and 3) and actively manipulated them (touched, reached into, played, destroyed, etc.): 4. Active actions with anthropomorphic objects (n=18). 5. Active actions with routine enrichment (n=20). Our data showed that in the case when the animal showed no interest in enrichment, the presence of routine enrichment didn’t significantly affect the visitors’ estimation of animal and its keeping conditions, while the mere presence of specific objects with anthropomorphic characteristics significantly changed the assessment of the animal, even if it didn't pay any attention to these items. When the anthropomorphic enrichment, compared to the routine, visitors more confidently assessed Jaguar as more healthy and having more pronounced human qualities, and its living conditions as better. Active actions of the animal with objects of routine and especially anthropomorphic enrichment made the animal more interesting for visitors and significantly enhanced positive anthropomorphic assessments of the animal on many scales. Our findings raise the important problem of combining the two directions of work in the modern zoos – education and recreation. While the visitors show a great interest in anthropomorphic design of enrichment, there is a remarkable increasing tendency to attribute animals with human characteristics, thus, the visitors perceive animals less objectively, what hampers the goals of educational process at the zoo.

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