Soil constructions: from theory to practiceстатья

Дата последнего поиска статьи во внешних источниках: 16 сентября 2020 г.

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[1] Smagin A. V., Deeb M. Soil constructions: from theory to practice // 3 MUGIS SUMMER SCHOOL Monitoring, modeling and managing urban soils and green infrastructure. Course materials. — RUDN Moscow, 2019. — P. 29–32. Understanding soils as a dynamic participant of the food, energy, and water cycle is critical to maximize their ecosystem services. The main soil functions include carbon and water storage, biogeochemical cycling, water management, soil structure stability, habitat for the organisms, filtering, and the fixation and transformation of toxic chemicals, such as heavy metals and pesticides. Soil functionality depends on the dynamic relationship between soil biotic activities and their surrounding environment (abiotic conditions). We offer several types of artificial soil structures for the management of a particular function or their combination as a whole. Artificially constructed soils for agricultural purposes. The main function of these soils is food production and are built by adding a high percentage of organic substances, associated materials, and fertilizers to improve the quality and fertility of the initial soils. The anthropogenic process and climate conditions resulted in the horizon formation of thick (>30 cm) organic-rich horizons. This horizon stores large amounts of moisture and nutrients to ensure high and sustainable crop production. Geostabilization soil constructions. These constructions are aimed at stabilizing the soil surface and minimizing water and wind erosion, taluses, landslides, surface subsidence, and other negative events (i.e, Agricultural terraces). Gabion constructions filled with rocky material are one of the most effective methods to prevent slope erosion. Different biological mats and biotextiles are used for the creation of fertile layers in specialized technical constructions, which can be stabilized using plants.. Soil constructions to prevent accumulated salinization of soils. These soils are built under severe dry climate. Typically, dry conditions drive water loss from the underground water to the topsoil via capillary action, and when the water evaporates from the topsoil, salts are left behind. Overtime, the soil will be degraded, and the high percentage of salts will prevent plant growth. The main idea of these constructions is to obstruct the capillary action from the underground water to the topsoil using a layer of gravel or artificial hydrophobization of the subsoil.

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